Background documentation

Case studies

Confined masonry in the reconstruction process after the October 2005 earthquake in Pakistan, by Schacher T. (2008), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC, Berne, Switzerland

Design and Construction of confined masonry houses in Indonesia, by Hausler E., Hart T. and Goodell G. (2014). BuildChange, Denver, USA

Introducing confined masonry in a fragile state: the case of Haiti after the 2010 earthquake, by Bartolini I. and Schacher T. (2017), SDC, Bern, Switzerland


A brief history of confined masonry and the development of guidelines,
by Hart T. and Brzev S. (2014),

Confined Masonry: Theoretical fundamentals, experimental test, finite element models and future uses,
by L. Nguyen, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA

Performance based seismic design of confined masonry structures,
by Alcocer S., Arias J. and Flores L., Institute of Engineering, UNAM, Mexico

Papers (Food for engineers. Architects, try to read the conclusions)

Brady K.C. amd Kavanagh J. (2002), Analysis of the stability of masonry-faced earth retaining walls, Transport Research Laboratory TRL, London, UK

Castro I. et al. (2014), Performance of interlocking compressed earth block infill in confined masonry construction, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, USA

Goodell G. and Laberenne R (2014), Preliminary considerations for the application of FEMA P695 to confined masonry structures

Hart T.M. and Brzev S. (2014), The confined masonry network's design and construction guidelines, 10th US-NCEE, Anchorage, Alaska

Hori N. et al. (2006), Experimental and analytical studies on earthquake resisting behaviour of confined concrete block masonry structures, Tohoku Uinversity, Senday, Japan

Jain S.K. et al. (2014), Application of confined masonry in a major project in India, 10th USNCEE, Anchorage, Alaska

Lang A., Crisafulli F. and Torrisi G. (2014), Overview and assessment of analysis techniques for confined masonry buildings, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina

Lang A. and Benzoni G (2014), Modelling of non-linear behavior of confined masonry using discrete elements, University of California, San Diego, USA

Paikara S. and Rai D.C. (2006),Confined masonry using pre-cast RC elements for enhanced earthquake resistance, by IIT Kanpur, India

Perez-Gavillan J., Flores L. and Manzano A. (2014), A new shear strength design formula for confined masonry walls: proposal to the Mexican code, UNAM and CENAPRED, Mexico

Ruiz-García J., Terán-Gilmore A. and Zuñiga-Cuevas O. (2010), Simplified drift-based fragility assessment of confined masonry buildings, UNAM and Universidad Michoacana, Mexico

San Bartolomé A. and Quiun D. (n/a), Design proposal of confined masonry buildings, Pontifícia Universidad Católica del Peru, Lima, Peru

Singhal V. and Rai DC.(2014), Seismic behaviour of Confined Masonry walls when subjected to in-plane and out-of-plane loading, Indian Institute of Technology IIT Kanpur, India

Smyrou E., Crisafulli F. et al. (2011), Implementation and verification of a masonry panel model for nonlinear dynamic analysis of infilled RC frames, Pavia, Italy

Terán-Gillmore A., Zuñiga-Cuevas O. and Ruiz-García J. (2009), Displacement-based seismic assessment of low-height confined masonry buildings, UNAM, Mexico

Tomazevic M. and Klemenc I. (1997), Verification of seismic resistance of Confined Masonry buildings, Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Tomazevic M. and Klemenc I. (1997), Seismic behaviour of confined masonry walls, Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Insititute, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Torrisi G., Crisafulli F. e Pavese A. (2012), An innovative model for the in-plane nonlinear analysis fo confined masonry and infill frame structures, Università degli Studi Pavia, Italy


Note on proper concrete mixing proportions, SDC - CCR Haiti (2012), in French

Comparison of the compressive strength of cement blocks from Haiti and Canada, UBC Vancouver (2012),

Nota sobre el problema de bloques de hormigón de calidad, (note on the problem of quality concrete blocks) SDC (COSUDE) Ecuador 2017, in SPANISH